Grid Protection Monitoring System



In this project we are monitoring the working of the grid and also controlling the load of each grid. There will be two transformers in the grid which provide electricity in two different zones. Each transformer is monitored with the help of temperature sensor and Load.

As in case of grid failure there will be presumed to have only two reasons:

a) Over Load

b) Short Circuit.

To monitor the load of the grid we are using PWM i.e. pulse with modulation this will be done with the help of micro controller and in case of short circuit the transformer become hot which we can measure with the help of temperature sensor. Now for controlling we are using the third transformer which is having higher load in comparison to these two transformers. So if there is any fault in the transformer then the load of that grid will be automatically transferred to this high value transformer until the load of that transformer come to it predefined condition.


The working of this project is controlled with the help of micro controller which will automatically monitor the working of the grid and also control the grid to run smoothly. The temperature sensor is set to a particular point and the voltage of each grid is also set at a particular point. This is done by using a variable resistance. Now, if there is any change in the temperature or voltage from the set point then this change is measured by the micro controller. After receiving a bit the microcontroller send a bit to ULN2003 IC which is a relay driver IC. This will share the load of that particular grid to the higher value transformer unit the grid comes to its normal condition. The switching of grid load is done with the help of relay which is connected with the ULN2003 IC. For monitoring the process of grid we are using a LCD on which the working of grid can be seen. For indication of any fault in the grid we are using buzzer which will indicate the same.


  1. Microcontroller AT89C52
  2. LM7805 Voltage Regulator
  3. LM7812 Voltage Regulator
  4. Relay Boards
  5. Relay 12V
  6. ULN2003 Relay Driver IC
  7. LCD
  8. Transformer
  9. Temperature Sensor
  10. Devices


  • High-impedance input eliminates
  • external buffers for precision designs
  • Bipolar input eliminates a level shifter
  • Provides the highest precision
  • Simplifies design and shortens time to market
  • Simultaneous sampling simplifies phase adjust
  • firmware requirements


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