Fire Fighting Robot



In this project light of high intensity is detected using the various LDR sensors connected. Robot will move in the direction where the intensity of light is greater. When there is fire at some place then the intensity of light in that area will be increased, LDR sensors will detect this change in intensity and provide the input to the connected Microcontroller, PIC16F73. The work of the microcontroller is to convert the signal from analog to digital form and the provide the output to the connected ULN2003 IC .This IC will help in rotating the motors in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. When robot will move in the direction of higher Intensity of light.

When robot will reach there and the temperature of that area is also high, which will be sensed through the Thermistor, then only the microcontroller switches on the connected relay.

A relay is electromagnetic switches which will then switch on the connected extinguish mechanism.

The intensity of the sensors can be adjusted using the connected variable resistance with them. The input of signal from the sensors is denoted by the connected LED’s.

We have used a PIC controller because it has A to D converted inbuilt. This helps in connecting the sensors directly to the controller.

A ULN is basically a set of seven Darlington’s; this will help in providing better and best current to the DC geared motors.

This robot is based on two wheel drive mechanism, with one free wheel in the front. If both the motors are rotating in the same direction then robot will move forward or reverse direction, if any motor rotates in another direction then the robot will move in the corresponding left or right direction.

We have used DC geared motors, since they have speed and power both. These motors are equipped with internal gears.


Crystal: Crystal Oscillator is used to make the micro controller work fast, a 4MHz crystal is used in this project hence the speed of processing of the micro controller is 4MHz. A crystal decides the processing speed of the microcontroller.

Capacitors: Capacitors are used for charging and discharging the extra charge generated while the working of circuit, hence it protects the circuit from burning. Two capacitors of value 22pF are used with the crystal and they are grounded together. Value of capacitor is calculated according to the input or output of the voltage. One another reason of using capacitors is that they control the impedance produced during the working of circuit. Basic function of these capacitor is to filter noise generated during the oscillation production.

Micro controllers: These are used to make the system autonomous. This is an AI system. Having some memory on the system, this is used to store the program on the micro controller, which is written in .Hex format; also it has many more features, like interrupts, timers etc.

PIC16F73: This is another micro controller, but of different family, PIC, it has inbuilt A to D converter, which is essential for our project. As we need to get the speed of the motor, and motor provides analog signals. It is 28 pin IC


  1. PIC16F73
  2. ULN2003
  4. Capacitor 22PF, 10mF
  5. Resistance 1K
  6. Variable 20K
  7. LED
  8. Motors
  9. Thermistor
  10. LDR
  11. Battery
  12. Wheels
  13. Relay
  14. PCB

In the present condition it can extinguish fire only in the way and not in all the rooms. It can be extended to a real fire extinguisher by replacing the fan by a carbon-di-oxide carrier and by making it to extinguish fires of all the room using micro programming. Also the robot could not be run through the batteries because at some conditions the current requirement for the circuit rises to about .



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